"Crazy-paving" patterns on high-resolution CT scans in patients with pulmonary complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Edson Marchiori, Dante L Escuissato, Taisa Davaus Gasparetto, Daniela Peixoto Considera, Tomas Franquet
Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society 2009, 10 (1): 21-4

OBJECTIVE: To describe the pulmonary complications following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) that can present with a "crazy-paving" pattern in high-resolution CT scans.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records from 2,537 patients who underwent HSCT. The "crazy-paving" pattern consists of interlobular and intralobular septal thickening superimposed on an area of ground-glass attenuation on high-resolution CT scans. The CT scans were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists, who reached final decisions by consensus.

RESULTS: We identified 10 cases (2.02%), seven male and three female, with pulmonary complications following HSCT that presented with the "crazy-paving" pattern. Seven (70%) patients had infectious pneumonia (adenovirus, herpes simplex, influenza virus, cytomegalovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and toxoplasmosis), and three patients presented with non-infectious complications (idiopathic pneumonia syndrome and acute pulmonary edema). The "crazy-paving" pattern was bilateral in all cases, with diffuse distribution in nine patients (90%), predominantly in the middle and inferior lung regions in seven patients (70%), and involving the anterior and posterior regions of the lungs in nine patients (90%).

CONCLUSION: The "crazy-paving" pattern is rare in HSCT recipients with pulmonary complications and is associated with infectious complications more commonly than non-infectious conditions.

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