Treatment of acute leukemia with unmanipulated HLA-mismatched/haploidentical blood and bone marrow transplantation

Xiao-Jun Huang, Dai-Hong Liu, Kai-Yan Liu, Lan-Ping Xu, Huan Chen, Wei Han, Yu-Hong Chen, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Dao-Pei Lu
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 2009, 15 (2): 257-65
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains one of the best therapeutic options to cure acute leukemia (AL). However, many patients have no human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donor. Recently, we developed a new method for HLA-mismatched/haploidentical transplantation without in vitro T cell depletion (TCD). This method combined granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-primed bone marrow and peripheral blood with intensive immunosuppression. We analyzed the outcome of 250 consecutive patients with AL who underwent HLA-mismatched/haploidentical transplantation with 1-3 mismatched loci of HLA-A, B, and DR from family donors via our new transplant protocol. Two hundred forty-nine patients achieved sustained, full donor chimerism. The incidence of grade 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) was 45.8%, and that of grades 3 and 4 was 13.4%, which was not associated with the extent of HLA disparity. The cumulative incidence of total chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 53.9% and that of extensive cGVHD was 22.6% in 217 evaluable patients. One hundred forty-one of the 250 patients survived free of disease recurrence at a median of 1092 days (range: 442-2437 days) of follow-up. Seventeen patients received DLI as a treatment for relapse after transplantation and 7 patients achieved leukemia-free survival (LFS). The 3-year probability of LFS for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) was 70.7% and 55.9%, and for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) it was 59.7% and 24.8% in standard-risk and high-risk groups, respectively. Lower LFS were associated with diagnosis of acute leukemia in the high-risk group (P= .001, relative risk [RR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.94[1.535-5.631]) and the occurrence of aGVHD of grades 3 and 4 (P= .004). HLA-mismatched/haploidentical HSCT was feasible with unmanipulated blood and bone marrow harvest.

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