JOURNAL ARTICLE

Beta2-adrenergic receptor regulate Toll-like receptor 4-induced late-phase NF-kappaB activation

Takako Kizaki, Ken Shirato, Takuya Sakurai, Jun-etsu Ogasawara, Shuji Oh-ishi, Takeshi Matsuoka, Tetsuya Izawa, Kazuhiko Imaizumi, Shukoh Haga, Hideki Ohno
Molecular Immunology 2009, 46 (6): 1195-203
19167076
Stimulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent early-phase NF-kappaB activation and Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)-dependent late-phase NF-kappaB activation. In a previous study, we have shown that beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) functions as a negative regulator of NF-kappaB activation through beta-arrestin 2 in the macrophage cell line RAW264 and that down-regulation of beta(2)AR expression in response to LPS is essential for NF-kappaB activation and expression of its target gene, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS II). Here, we demonstrate that beta(2)AR plays an important role in TRIF-dependent late-phase NF-kappaB activation. LPS-stimulated down-regulation was induced in MyD88-knockdown cells, but not in TRIF-knockdown cells, suggesting that beta(2)AR expression was down-regulated by the TRIF-dependent pathway. On the other hand, depletion of beta(2)AR or beta-arrestin 2 expression by siRNA decreased cytoplasmic IkappaB alpha and abrogated late-phase IkappaB alpha degradation and NF-kappaB activation in response to LPS. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS II) expression was increased continuously during 24 h of LPS stimulation in control cells, but decreased in beta(2)AR or beta-arrestin 2-knockdown cells after 6 h of LPS stimulation. These findings suggest that beta(2)AR functions not only as a negative regulator of NF-kappaB activation, but also as a stabilizing factor of the NF-kappaB/IkappaB alpha complex through cytoplasmic beta-arrestin 2, and that TRIF-dependent down-regulation of beta(2)AR expression increases the level of cytoplasmic NF-kappaB/IkappaB alpha complex free from beta-arrestin 2, leading to continuous late-phase NF-kappaB activation.

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