A gamma-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols inhibits colon inflammation and carcinogenesis in azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-treated mice

Jihyeung Ju, Xingpei Hao, Mao-Jung Lee, Joshua D Lambert, Gang Lu, Hang Xiao, Harold L Newmark, Chung S Yang
Cancer Prevention Research 2009, 2 (2): 143-52
We investigated the effects of a gamma-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (gamma-TmT, containing 57% gamma-T, 24% delta-T, and 13% alpha-T) on colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated mice. In experiment 1, 6-week-old male CF-1 mice were given a dose of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight, i.p.), and 1 week later, 1.5% DSS in drinking water for 1 week. The mice were maintained on either a gamma-TmT (0.3%)-enriched or a standard AIN93M diet, starting 1 week before the AOM injection, until the termination of experiment. In the AOM/DSS-treated mice, dietary gamma-TmT treatment resulted in a significantly lower colon inflammation index (52% of the control) on day 7 and number of colon adenomas (9% of the control) on week 7. gamma-TmT treatment also resulted in higher apoptotic index in adenomas, lower prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, and nitrotyrosine levels in the colon, and lower prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, and 8-isoprostane levels in the plasma on week 7. Some of the decreases were observed even on day 7. In experiment 2 with AOM/DSS- treated mice sacrificed on week 21, dietary 0.17% or 0.3% gamma-TmT treatment, starting 1 week before the AOM injection, significantly inhibited adenocarcinoma and adenoma formation in the colon (to 17-33% of the control). Dietary 0.3% gamma-TmT that was initiated after DSS treatment also exhibited a similar inhibitory activity. The present study showed that gamma-TmT effectively inhibited colon carcinogenesis in AOM/DSS-treated mice, and the inhibition may be due to the apoptosis-inducing, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and reactive nitrogen species-trapping activities of tocopherols.

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