Piperazine-designed alpha 1A/alpha 1D-adrenoceptor blocker KMUP-1 and doxazosin provide down-regulation of androgen receptor and PSA in prostatic LNCaP cells growth and specifically in xenografts

Chi-Ming Liu, Yi-Ching Lo, Ming-Hong Tai, Bin-Nan Wu, Wen-Jeng Wu, Yii-Her Chou, Chee-Yin Chai, Chun-Hsiung Huang, Ing-Jun Chen
Prostate 2009 May 1, 69 (6): 610-23

BACKGROUND: KMUP-1 has been suggested to be beneficial in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. This study is aimed to further investigate whether KMUP-1 and doxazosin prevent from prostate cancer cell growth via androgen-dependent and -independent pathway in vivo and in vitro.

METHODS: KMUP-1 was measured the activity on proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution in prostate cancer cells (LNCaP, DU-145, PC-3) by MTT assay, flow cytometry, Western Blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The inhibition activities on androgen receptor (AR) and AR-targeting molecular prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression by KMUP-1 and doxazosin were measured by RT-PCR, Western Blotting, and ELISA. Furthermore, we confirmed the effects of KMUP-1 on growth of LNCaP xenografts in nude mice.

RESULTS: KMUP-1 significantly inhibited LNCaP cell growth and induced apoptosis in time- and dose-dependent manner. KMUP-1 and doxazosin further inhibited the expression of AR and PSA. Treatment of LNCaP cells with KMUP-1 resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptotic activities, increasing p21 and p27 and decreasing expressions of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4, CDK2 and CDK6. Moreover, KMUP-1 activated p53, cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase-3, but reduced the expression of Bcl-2. Regular administration of KMUP-1 suppressed the LNCaP xenograft tumor growth in nude mice.

CONCLUSION: These evidences indicate that KMUP-1 and doxazosin inhibit LNCaP cell growth and downregulate expression of AR and PSA. KMUP-1 might be used as a chemoprevention agent for preventing the development of prostate cancer without cardiovascular adverse effect of doxazosin.

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