REVIEW
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 deficiency.

Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is an important component of the coagulation system that down-regulates fibrinolysis in the circulation. Reduced PAI-1 levels may result in increased fibrinolysis and an associated bleeding diathesis. Clear documentation of PAI-1 deficiency as a cause of a bleeding disorder has been rare. PAI-1 was initially identified in the 1980s, and the first reported case of PAI-1 deficiency appeared in 1989. Several reports followed, although only two identified an underlying genetic defect. These reports of PAI-1 deficiency suggest that affected individuals exhibit mild to moderate bleeding symptoms, including epistaxis, menorrhagia, and delayed bleeding after trauma or surgical procedures. Affected individuals rarely exhibit spontaneous bleeding events commonly seen in other procoagulant deficiencies. The majority of bleeding events are controlled with antifibrinolytic agents, such as tranexamic acid and epsilon-aminocaproic acid. A major issue that contributes to difficulty in establishing an accurate diagnosis of PAI-1 deficiency is that the activity assay is accurate in detection of elevated levels but not at the lowest range. Reported normal ranges begin at zero, thereby making a deficiency state because of a dysproteinaemia difficult to distinguish from that of a normal unaffected individual. Although the antigen assay may be helpful in some circumstances, it assists only with complete quantitative disorders. Because of lack of standardized commercially available PAI-1 activity assay sensitive in the lowest range, the true prevalence of this rare condition has not been established.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app