JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Integration of non-SMAD and SMAD signaling in TGF-beta1-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

Rohan Samarakoon, Paul J Higgins
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 2008, 100 (6): 976-83
19132220
Overexpression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (SERPINE1, PAI-1), the major physiological inhibitor of pericellular plasmin generation, is a significant causative factor in the progression of vascular disorders (e.g. arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, perivascular fibrosis) as well as a biomarker and a predictor of cardiovascular-disease associated mortality. PAI-1 is a temporal/spatial regulator of pericellular proteolysis and ECM accumulation impacting, thereby, vascular remodeling, smooth muscle cell migration, proliferation and apoptosis. Within the specific context of TGF-beta1-initiated vascular fibrosis and neointima formation, PAI-1 is a member of the most prominently expressed subset of TGF-beta1-induced transcripts. Recent findings implicate EGFR/pp60c-src-->MEK/ERK1/2 and Rho/ROCK-->SMAD2/3 signaling in TGF-beta1-stimulated PAI-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells. The EGFR is a direct upstream regulator of MEK/ERK1/2 while Rho/ROCK modulate both the duration of SMAD2/3 phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation. E-box motifs (CACGTG) in the PE1/PE2 promoter regions of the human PAI-1 gene, moreover, are platforms for a MAP kinase-directed USF subtype switch (USF-1-->USF-2) in response to growth factor addition suggesting that the EGFR-->MEK/ERK axis impacts PAI-1 expression, at least partly, through USF-dependent transcriptional controls. This paper reviews recent data suggesting the essential cooperativity among the EGFR-->MAP kinase cascade, the Rho/ROCK pathway and SMADs in TGF-beta1-initiated PAI-1 expression. The continued clarification of mechanistic controls on PAI-1 transcription may lead to new targeted therapies and clinically-relevant options for the treatment of vascular diseases in which PAI-1 dysregulation is a major underlying pathogenic feature.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
19132220
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"