An efficient biosurfactant-producing bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa MR01, isolated from oil excavation areas in south of Iran

Tayebe Bagheri Lotfabad, Mitra Shourian, Reza Roostaazad, Abdolhossein Rouholamini Najafabadi, Mohammad Reza Adelzadeh, Kambiz Akbari Noghabi
Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces 2009 March 1, 69 (2): 183-93
A bacterial strain was isolated and cultured from the oil excavation areas in tropical zone in southern Iran. It was affiliated with Pseudomonas. The biochemical characteristics and partial sequenced 16S rRNA gene of isolate, MR01, was identical to those of cultured representatives of the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracted biosurfactant was composed of high percentages lipid ( approximately 65%, w/w) and carbohydrate ( approximately 30%, w/w) in addition to a minor fraction of protein ( approximately 4%, w/w). The best production of 2.1g/l was obtained when the cells were grown on minimal salt medium containing 1.2% (w/v) glucose and 0.1% (w/v) ammonium sulfate supplemented with 0.1% (w/v) isoleucine at 37 degrees C and 180rpm after 2 days. The optimum biosurfactant production pH value was found to be 8.0. The MR01 could reduce surface tension to 28mN/m and emulsified hexadecane up to E24 approximately 70. The results obtained from time course study indicated that the surface tension reduction and emulsification potential was increased in the same way to cell growth. However, maximum biosurfactant production occurred and established in the stationary growth phase (after 84h). Fourier Transform Infrared spectrum of extracted biosurfactant indicates the presence of carboxyl, amine, hydroxyl and methoxyl functional groups. Thermogram of biosurfactant demonstrated three sharp endothermic peaks placing between 200 and 280 degrees C. The core holder flooding experiments demonstrated that the oil recovery efficiencies varied from 23.7% to 27.1% of residual oil.

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