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Early discharge after high-dose melphalan and peripheral blood stem cell reinfusion in patients with hematological and non-hematological disease

Antonella Anastasia, Fabio Giglio, Rita Mazza, Barbara Sarina, Elisabetta Todisco, Stefania Bramanti, Luca Castagna
Leukemia & Lymphoma 2009, 50 (1): 80-4
19125385
The purpose of this study was to analyse our experience of early discharge 2 days after high-dose melphalan (HDM) (Day-1) followed by peripheral blood stem cell re-infusion (Day-0) and re-admission on Day +5 in patients with hematological diseases or solid tumors. From 2000 to November 2005, seven patients received tandem Melphalan 200 mg/m(2) HDM with peripheral blood stem cells transplantation (PBSC-T), 130 a single HDM, for a total of 144 procedures. In 123 of them, patients were discharged on Day +1 for re-admission on Day +5 or earlier in the event of complications. Antibiotic prophylaxis was not used. Patients were hospitalised in positive-pressure reverse isolation room during the neutropenic period. Of the 123 procedures eligible for our mixed inpatient-outpatient management regimen, six (5%) required early re-admission for complications. Full engraftment was achieved in all cases. Median time to neutrophil count >0.5 x 10(9)/microL and >1 x 10(9)/microL were 12 and 14 days, respectively. Median time to platelet recovery (>20 x 10(9)/microL) was 13 days. Severe extra-hematological toxicities occurred in 78 (63%) patients: all had oral mucositis and five had associated diarrhoea. During hospitalisation, 94/123 (76%) experienced febrile neutropenia, 20/94 (21%) had documented infection and 74/94 (79%) were considered fever of unknown origin. Median fever duration was 1 day (range 0-11). Median duration of antibiotic treatment was 6 days (range 3-26). Median time to discharge (from Day 0) was 16 days (range 11-57). There was no mortality by on Day +100. Our experience of early discharge after HDM and PBSC-T with re-admission on Day +5 is safe and feasible with acceptable frequency of hematological and extra-hematological toxicities. The regimen allows reduced hospital stay and hence cost savings.

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