Adipose triglyceride lipase in human skeletal muscle is upregulated by exercise training

Thomas J Alsted, Lars Nybo, Martina Schweiger, Christian Fledelius, Poul Jacobsen, Robert Zimmermann, Rudolf Zechner, Bente Kiens
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 2009, 296 (3): E445-53
Mobilization of fatty acids from stored triacylglycerol (TG) in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle [intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG)] requires activity of lipases. Although exercise training increases the lipolytic capacity of skeletal muscle, the expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is not changed. Recently, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was identified as a TG-specific lipase in various rodent tissues. To investigate whether human skeletal muscle ATGL protein is regulated by endurance exercise training, 10 healthy young men completed 8 wk of supervised endurance exercise training. Western blotting analysis on lysates of skeletal muscle biopsy samples revealed that exercise training induced a twofold increase in skeletal muscle ATGL protein content. In contrast to ATGL, expression of comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58), the activating protein of ATGL, and HSL protein was not significantly changed after the training period. The IMTG concentration was significantly decreased by 28% at termination of the training program compared with before. HSL-phoshorylation at Ser(660) was increased, HSL-Ser(659) phosporylation was unchanged, and HSL-phoshorylation at Ser(565) was decreased altogether, indicating an enhanced basal activity of this lipase. No change was found in the expression of diacylglycerol acyl transferase 1 (DGAT1) after training. Inhibition of HSL with a monospecific, small molecule inhibitor (76-0079) and stimulation of ATGL with CGI-58 revealed that significant ATGL activity is present in human skeletal muscle. These results suggest that ATGL in addition to HSL may be important for human skeletal muscle lipolysis.

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