JOURNAL ARTICLE

Organization and postembryonic development of glial cells in the adult central brain of Drosophila

Takeshi Awasaki, Sen-Lin Lai, Kei Ito, Tzumin Lee
Journal of Neuroscience 2008 December 17, 28 (51): 13742-53
19091965
Glial cells exist throughout the nervous system, and play essential roles in various aspects of neural development and function. Distinct types of glia may govern diverse glial functions. To determine the roles of glia requires systematic characterization of glia diversity and development. In the adult Drosophila central brain, we identify five different types of glia based on its location, morphology, marker expression, and development. Perineurial and subperineurial glia reside in two separate single-cell layers on the brain surface, cortex glia form a glial mesh in the brain cortex where neuronal cell bodies reside, while ensheathing and astrocyte-like glia enwrap and infiltrate into neuropils, respectively. Clonal analysis reveals that distinct glial types derive from different precursors, and that most adult perineurial, ensheathing, and astrocyte-like glia are produced after embryogenesis. Notably, perineurial glial cells are made locally on the brain surface without the involvement of gcm (glial cell missing). In contrast, the widespread ensheathing and astrocyte-like glia derive from specific brain regions in a gcm-dependent manner. This study documents glia diversity in the adult fly brain and demonstrates involvement of different developmental programs in the derivation of distinct types of glia. It lays an essential foundation for studying glia development and function in the Drosophila brain.

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