Immediate/Early loading of zygomatic implants: clinical experiences after 2 to 5 years of follow-up

Carlos Aparicio, Wafaa Ouazzani, Arnau Aparicio, Vanessa Fortes, Rosa Muela, Andres Pascual, Maria Codesal, Natalia Barluenga, Monica Franch
Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research 2010, 12 Suppl 1: e77-82

BACKGROUND: Conventional prosthetic treatment of the edentulous and resorbed maxilla with zygomatic implants is a lengthy procedure. Today, immediate/early loading is a clinical reality and it is possible that such protocols could be used also for zygomatic implants.

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study is to report on the clinical outcomes of immediate/early loading of zygomatic implants for prosthetic rehabilitation of edentulous and severely resorbed maxillary cases.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 47 zygomatic and 129 regular implants were placed in 25 consecutive patients with total (N = 23) or partial (N = 2) edentulism in the maxilla. The patients had less than 4 mm of available bone height and width distal to the canine pillars. Straight and angulated abutments and impression copings were attached to the implants during surgery. Impressions and bite registrations were made and 19 patients received a bridge within 24 hours and six patients were rehabilitated within 5 days. Screw-retained full arch restorations were used in 23 patients and cemented in 2 patients. The patients were instructed for a soft diet during 4 months. Follow-up controls were performed at 1, 4, and 12 months and thereafter annually. All patients were followed for at least 2 years and up to 5 years in function.

RESULTS: All zygomatic implants were stable during the follow-up (cumulative survival rate 100%). One regular implant placed in the pterygoid plate failed after 52 months of loading (cumulative survival rate 99.2%). Apart from fracture of one abutment screw and of anterior teeth in five patients, no other complications were noted.

CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of the present study, it is concluded that immediate/early loading is a viable treatment modality for prosthetic rehabilitation of the severely resorbed maxilla using zygomatic and conventional implants.

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