Tissue regeneration and repair of goat segmental femur defect with bioactive triphasic ceramic-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold

Manitha B Nair, H K Varma, K V Menon, Sachin J Shenoy, Annie John
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A 2009, 91 (3): 855-65
Bone tissue engineering which is a developing and challenging field of science, is expected to enhance the regeneration and repair of bone lost from injury or disease and ultimately to gain its aesthetic contour. The objective of this study was to fabricate a tissue-engineered construct in vitro using a triphasic ceramic-coated hydroxypatite (HASi) in combination with stem cells and to investigate its potential in healing segmental defect in goat model. To accomplish this attempt, mesenchymal stem cells isolated from goat bone marrow were seeded onto HASi scaffolds and induced to differentiate into the osteogenic lineage in vitro. Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy revealed adhesion and spread-out cells, which eventually formed a cell-sheet like canopy over the scaffold. Cells migrated and distributed themselves within the internal voids of the porous ceramic. Concurrently, the neo-osteogenesis of the tissue-engineered construct was validated in vivo in comparison with bare HASi (without cells) in goat femoral diaphyseal segmental defect (2 cm) at 4 months postimplantation through radiography, computed tomography, histology, histomorphometry, scanning electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Good osteointegration and osteoconduction was observed in bare and tissue-engineered HASi. The performance of tissue-engineered HASi was better and faster which was evident by the lamellar bone organization of newly formed bone throughout the defect together with the degradation of the material. On the contrary with bare HASi, immature woven bony bridges still intermingled with scattered small remnants of the material was observed in the mid region of the defect at 4 months. Encouraging results from this preclinical study has proved the capability of the tissue-engineered HASi as a promising candidate for the reconstruction of similar bony defects in humans.

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