Digoxin: current use and approach to toxicity

Rey P Vivo, Selim R Krim, Joanne Perez, Mahakit Inklab, Thomas Tenner, John Hodgson
American Journal of the Medical Sciences 2008, 336 (5): 423-8
Heralded as the oldest known cardiovascular drug, digoxin remains widely used today in the face of increasing rates in heart failure and atrial fibrillation despite the emergence of newer medications. Its hemodynamic, neurohormonal and electrophysiologic actions make it a suitable adjunctive, evidence-based therapy for the above conditions. Its narrow therapeutic index and its toxicity, however, have become more relevant as aging, comorbid diseases, and polypharmacy make more patients vulnerable. Because signs and symptoms of digoxin toxicity are mostly nonspecific, a high index of suspicion is crucial for early recognition and appropriate management.

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