Protease-mediated entry via the endosome of human coronavirus 229E

Miyuki Kawase, Kazuya Shirato, Shutoku Matsuyama, Fumihiro Taguchi
Journal of Virology 2009, 83 (2): 712-21
Human coronavirus 229E, classified as a group I coronavirus, utilizes human aminopeptidase N (APN) as a receptor; however, its entry mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated. We found that HeLa cells infected with 229E via APN formed syncytia when treated with trypsin or other proteases but not in a low-pH environment, a finding consistent with syncytium formation by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). In addition, trypsin induced cleavage of the 229E S protein. By using infectious viruses and pseudotyped viruses bearing the 229E S protein, we found that its infection was profoundly blocked by lysosomotropic agents as well as by protease inhibitors that also prevented infection with SARS-CoV but not that caused by murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus strain JHMV, which enters cells directly from the cell surface. We found that cathepsin L (CPL) inhibitors blocked 229E infection the most remarkably among a variety of protease inhibitors tested. Furthermore, 229E infection was inhibited in CPL knockdown cells by small interfering RNA, compared with what was seen for a normal counterpart producing CPL. However, its inhibition was not so remarkable as that found with SARS-CoV infection, which seems to indicate that while CPL is involved in the fusogenic activation of 229E S protein in endosomal infection, not-yet-identified proteases could also play a part in that activity. We also found 229E virion S protein to be cleaved by CPL. Furthermore, as with SARS-CoV, 229E entered cells directly from the cell surface when cell-attached viruses were treated with trypsin. These findings suggest that 229E takes an endosomal pathway for cell entry and that proteases like CPL are involved in this mode of entry.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"