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Thermodynamic study of solvent extraction of 15-crown-5- and 18-crown-6-s-block metal ion complexes and tetraalkylammonium ions with picrate anions into chloroform

Y Takeda, N Ikeo, N Sakata
Talanta 1991, 38 (11): 1325-33
Enthalpy and entropy changes for ion-pair extractions of tetraalkylammonium ions (R(4)N(+)) with picrate anions, overall extractions of s-block metal picrates with 15-crown-5 (15C5) and 18-crown-6 (18C6) and the partition of 15C5 itself were determined between chloroform and water. The distribution behaviour of crown ethers and the extraction process of s-block metal picrates with the crown ethers are discussed in detail on molecular grounds from the thermodynamic point of view. Moreover, enthalpy and entropy changes for ion-pair extractions of 1:1 15C5- and 18C6-s-block metal ion complexes with picrate anions are calculated from these experimental thermodynamic parameters and the literature values for complex-formation reactions of the crown ethers with the s-block metal ions in water. Enthalpy and entropy changes are negative for overall extractions of all the s-block metal picrates with 15C5 and 18C6. The extractions of the metal picrates with 15C5 and 18C6 at 25 degrees are completely enthalpy driven. Plots of thermodynamic parameters for ion-pair extractions of R(4)NA vs. the number of carbon atoms of R(4)N(+) show a linear relationship. From these experimental data, contributions of a methylene group and an ether oxygen atom to the thermodynamic parameters of the ion-pair extraction of R(4)NA and the partition of the crown ethers, respectively, between chloroform and water were obtained. Enthalpy and entropy changes for ion-pair extractions of 15C5- and 18C6-s-block metal picrate complexes were compared with those of R(4)NA. A striking difference in the ion-pair extraction process was found between the crown ether complexes and R(4)NA.


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