Ensuring cross-cultural equivalence in translation of research consents and clinical documents: a systematic process for translating English to Chinese

Cheng-Chih Lee, Denise Li, Shoshana Arai, Kathleen Puntillo
Journal of Transcultural Nursing: Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society 2009, 20 (1): 77-82
The aim of this article is to describe a formal process used to translate research study materials from English into traditional Chinese characters. This process may be useful for translating documents for use by both research participants and clinical patients. A modified Brislin model was used as the systematic translation process. Four bilingual translators were involved, and a Flaherty 3-point scale was used to evaluate the translated documents. The linguistic discrepancies that arise in the process of ensuring cross-cultural congruency or equivalency between the two languages are presented to promote the development of patient-accessible cross-cultural documents.

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