Comparison of the Coffea canephora and C. arabica karyotype based on chromosomal DNA content

Wellington Ronildo Clarindo, Carlos Roberto Carvalho
Plant Cell Reports 2009, 28 (1): 73-81
Nuclear genome size has been measured in various plants, seeing that knowledge of the DNA content is useful for taxonomic and evolutive studies, plant breeding programs and genome sequencing projects. Besides the nuclear DNA content, tools and protocols to quantify the chromosomal DNA content have been also applied, expanding the data about genomic structure. This study was conducted in order to calculate the Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica chromosomal DNA content, associating cytogenetic methodologies with flow cytometry (FCM) and image cytometry (ICM) tools. FCM analysis showed that the mean nuclear DNA content of C. canephora and C. arabica is 2C = 1.41 and 2.62 pg, respectively. The cytogenetic methodology provided prometaphase and metaphase cells exhibiting adequate chromosomes for the ICM measurements and karyogram assembly. Based on cytogenetic, FCM and ICM results; it was possible to calculate the chromosomal DNA content of the two species. The 1C chromosomal DNA content of C. canephora ranged from 0.09 (chromosome 1) to 0.05 pg (chromosome 11) and C. arabica from 0.09 (chromosome 1) to 0.03 pg (chromosome 22). The methodology presented in this study was suitable for DNA content measuring of each chromosome of C. canephora and C. arabica. The cytogenetic characterization and chromosomal DNA content analyses evidenced that C. arabica is a true allotetraploid originated from a cross between Coffea diploid species. Besides, the same analyses also reinforce that C. canephora is a possible progenitor of C. arabica.

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