Vascular cell responsiveness to Toll-like receptor ligands in carotid atheroma

C Erridge, A Burdess, A J Jackson, C Murray, M Riggio, D Lappin, S Milligan, C M Spickett, D J Webb
European Journal of Clinical Investigation 2008, 38 (10): 713-20

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is potentiated by stimulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which serve to detect pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). However little is known of which PAMPs may be present in atheroma, or capable of stimulating inflammatory signalling in vascular cells.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA extracted from human carotid atheroma samples was amplified and sequenced using broad-range 16S gene specific primers to establish historical exposure to bacterial PAMPs. Responsiveness of primary human arterial and venous endothelial and smooth muscle cells to PAMPs specific for each of the TLRs was assessed by measurement of interleukin-8 secretion and E-selectin expression.

RESULTS: Extracts of atheromatous tissue stimulated little or no signalling in TLR-transfected HEK-293 cells. However, sequencing of bacterial DNA amplified from carotid atheroma revealed the presence of DNA from 17 different bacterial genera, suggesting historical exposure to bacterial lipopeptide, lipopolysaccharide and flagellin. All cells examined were responsive to the ligands of TLR3 and TLR4, poly inosine:cytosine and lipopolysaccharide. Arterial cells were responsive to a wider range of PAMPs than venous cells, being additionally responsive to bacterial flagellin and unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanosine DNA motifs, the ligands of TLR5 and TLR9, respectively. Cells were generally unresponsive towards the ligands of human TLR7 and TLR8, loxoribine and single stranded RNA. Only coronary artery endothelial cells expressed TLR2 mRNA and responded to the TLR2 ligand Pam(3)CSK(4).

CONCLUSIONS: Vascular cells are responsive to a relatively diverse range of TLR ligands and may be exposed, at least transiently, to ligands of TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9 during the development of carotid atheroma.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"