Rottlerin induces pro-apoptotic endoplasmic reticulum stress through the protein kinase C-delta-independent pathway in human colon cancer cells

Jun Hee Lim, Jong-Wook Park, Sang Hyun Kim, Yung Hyun Choi, Kyeong Sook Choi, Taeg Kyu Kwon
Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death 2008, 13 (11): 1378-85
Rottlerin, a compound reported to be a PKC delta-selective inhibitor, has been shown to induce growth arrest or apoptosis of human cancer cell lines. In our study, rottlerin dose-dependently induced apoptotic cell death in colon carcinoma cells. Treatment of HT29 human colon carcinoma cells with rottlerin was found to induce a number of signature ER stress markers; phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha (eIF-2alpha), ER stress-specific XBP1 splicing, and up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein (GRP)-78 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP). However, suppression of PKC delta expression by siRNA or overexpression of WT-PKC delta and DN-PKC delta did not abrogate the rottlerin-mediated induction of CHOP. These results suggest that rottlerin induces up-regulation of CHOP via PKC delta-independent pathway. Furthermore, down-regulation of CHOP expression using CHOP siRNA attenuated rottlerin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the present study thus provides strong evidence to support an important role of ER stress response in mediating the rottlerin-induced apoptosis.

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