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Hair anatomy for the clinician.

The rational evaluation of hair disorders requires familiarity with follicular anatomy. Hair structure can be easily examined by studying clipped hair shafts, entire hairs gently pulled or forcibly plucked from the scalp, and scalp biopsies (sectioned vertically or transversely). Anatomic features will be different depending on whether a given hair is in the anagen, catagen, or telogen phase. Follicle size will also vary, from the minute vellus hair to the long, thick terminal hair. Each follicle can be divided into distinct regions--bulb, suprabulbar zone, isthmus, and infundibulum. Activity growing (anagen) hairs are characterized by a hair matrix surrounding a dermal papilla; inner and outer root sheaths are present and well developed. A catagen hair can be identified by its markedly thickened vitreous layer and fibrous root sheath, which surrounds an epithelial column; above this column, the presumptive club forms. A telogen hair is distinguished by its fully keratinized club, which is surrounded by an epithelial sac. Below this lies the secondary hair germ and condensed dermal papilla, waiting for the mysterious signal that initiates a new life cycle.

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Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

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