JOURNAL ARTICLE
MULTICENTER STUDY

Childbearing, breastfeeding, other reproductive factors and the subsequent risk of hospitalization for gallbladder disease

Bette Liu, Valerie Beral, Angela Balkwill
International Journal of Epidemiology 2009, 38 (1): 312-8
18775873

BACKGROUND: While parous women are known to be at an increased risk of gallbladder disease, little is known about the effects of other reproductive factors such as breastfeeding, age at menarche and age at menopause.

METHODS: The Million Women Study is a prospective cohort study of 1.3 million middle-aged women in England and Scotland recruited from 1996 to 2001. Participants were followed-up by record-linkage for a mean of 6.1 years for admissions to hospital. The adjusted relative risk of hospital admission for cholelithiasis, cholecystitis or cholecystectomy according to parity, breastfeeding, age at menarche and age at menopause was examined.

RESULTS: During follow-up of 1 289 029 eligible women, 25 111 were admitted to hospital for gallbladder disease, of whom 21 735 (87%) had a cholecystectomy. The hospital admission rate over 5 years for gallbladder disease was 1.6/100 women and for cholecystectomy was 1.4/100 women. The adjusted relative risk of gallbladder disease increased with increasing parity by 8% (95% CI 7-9%, P < 0.0001) for each birth. Among women of a given parity, breastfeeding reduced the risk of gallbladder disease, the relative risk decreasing by 7% (95% CI 5-10%, P < 0.0001) per year of breastfeeding. Women's age of menarche and age at menopause did not alter the risk of gallbladder disease (P = 0.4 and P = 0.3, respectively for linear trend).

CONCLUSION: Hospitalization for gallbladder disease is common in middle-aged women. The risk increases the more children a woman has had, but decreases the longer she breastfeeds. The increased risk of gallbladder disease associated with having children can be offset by breastfeeding.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
18775873
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"