Correlation of lung abnormalities on high-resolution CT with clinical graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic versus autologous bone marrow transplantation in children

Laura Merlini, Irene Maria Olivia Borzani, Mehrak Anooshiravani, Isabelle Rochat, Ayse Hulya Ozsahin, Sylviane Hanquinet
Pediatric Radiology 2008, 38 (11): 1201-9

BACKGROUND: Late-onset noninfectious pulmonary complications (LONIPCs) are life-threatening complications of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Several pathological patterns are described in the literature with different prognoses, and with different relationships to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The role of high-resolution CT (HRCT) is not yet well established.

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate different patterns of LONIPCs on HRCT in allogeneic versus autologous BMT in order to investigate the correlation with chronic GVHD (cGVHD).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 67 HRCT scans were performed in 24 patients with noninfectious pulmonary disease at least 3 months after BMT (16 allogeneic, 8 autologous). Abnormality patterns and extension on HRCT images were correlated with the clinical outcome and with the severity of cGVHD.

RESULTS: Of 24 patients, 9 showed LONIPCs (1 autologous, 8 allogeneic). There was a significant association between abnormalities on HRCT and severe cGVHD (P = 0.038), with no specific pattern. Prognosis seemed to be related to the severity of cGVHD and not to the extent of abnormalities on HRCT.

CONCLUSION: The significant association between abnormalities on HRCT and severe GVHD suggests that LONIPCs can be a pulmonary manifestation of the disease. HRCT is a useful tool when combined with clinical data.

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