JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Control of peripheral T-cell tolerance and autoimmunity via the CTLA-4 and PD-1 pathways

Brian T Fife, Jeffrey A Bluestone
Immunological Reviews 2008, 224: 166-82
18759926
Classically, the CD28/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and B7 families of cell surface molecules regulate complex signaling pathways that profoundly affect T-cell responses. The recent identification and characterization of additional CD28 and B7 family members including programmed death-1 (PD-1), programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) (B7-H1), and PD-L2 (B7-DC) has added to the complexity and greater appreciation of how surface molecules control T-cell activation and peripheral tolerance. CD28/B7 interactions mediate co-stimulation and significantly enhance peripheral T-cell responses. CTLA-4, in contrast, interacting with the same B7 molecules, results in decreased T-lymphocyte activity and regulates the immune response. Similarly, PD-1 interactions with PD-L1 and PD-L2 downmodulate T-cell immune responses. Despite these similarities, the regulatory roles of the CTLA-4 and PD-1 pathways are distinct. This may be due, at least in part, to the differential expression patterns of the CTLA-4 and PD-1 ligands both temporally and spatially. This article examines the role of CTLA-4 and PD-1 in limiting autoreactivity and establishing peripheral self-tolerance with the hypothesis that CTLA-4 signals are required early in the lymph node during initiation of an immune response and PD-1 pathways act late at the tissue sites to limit T-cell activity.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
18759926
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"