REVIEW
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Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors for overriding Bcr-Abl/T315I: from the second to third generation.

Treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has changed drastically with the emergence of the Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), imatinib mesylate. However, primary and secondary resistance have frequently been reported, particularly in patients with advanced-stage disease. Point mutations within the Abl kinase domain that interfere with imatinib binding are the most critical cause of imatinib resistance. In order to override this resistance, several second generation ATP-competitive Abl TKIs including dasatinib, nilotinib, bosutinib and INNO-406 have been developed. Despite promising clinical results from these novel Abl TKIs for most mutations, the frequently observed mutant T315I is not effectively targeted by any of these agents. Thus, identification of novel agents and the development of new strategies for the effective treatment of CML patients with the T315I mutation are important and challenging tasks. In this review, the current status of novel agents for CML treatment is overviewed as follows: pathogenesis and features of CML; imatinib and second-generation Abl TKIs; why Abl TKIs are not effective against T315I; and novel agents that may override the T315I mutation.

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