JOURNAL ARTICLE
MULTICENTER STUDY
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

Calcium, vitamin D supplementation, and physical function in the Women's Health Initiative

Robert L Brunner, Barbara Cochrane, Rebecca D Jackson, Joseph Larson, Cora Lewis, Marian Limacher, Milagros Rosal, Sally Shumaker, Robert Wallace
Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2008, 108 (9): 1472-9
18755319

OBJECTIVES: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized trial of calcium/vitamin D supplementation found reduced bone loss with active treatment compared to placebo. Now we examine whether the treatment affected self-reported physical functioning and objective measures of physical functioning.

DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 1,000 mg calcium carbonate plus 400 IU vitamin D(3) per day or matching placebo pills.

SUBJECTS/SETTING: The study included 33,067 women (50 to 79 years old) at 40 US study centers.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physical functioning was assessed by questionnaire at enrollment in WHI, 1 year prior to calcium/vitamin D trial randomization and at study close-out (average follow-up 7.1 years). Objective physical performance and self-reported exercise measures were collected at WHI baseline (1 year prior to calcium/vitamin D enrollment) and 2 years and 4 years after calcium/vitamin D trial enrollment in a subsample (n=3,137).

STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Calcium/vitamin D effects were tested in unadjusted and interaction linear models for each of the physical function measures. Covariates were baseline total calcium intake, fracture risk score, treatment arm in the hormone therapy and dietary modification trials (ie, active drug or placebo, low-fat diet intervention or usual diet, respectively) and age.

RESULTS: Neither intention to treat nor high adherence analyses produced substantial effects of calcium/vitamin D compared to placebo on physical functioning or performance. The interaction analyses also did not result in differences because of calcium/vitamin D.

CONCLUSIONS: As the first long-term randomized trial to examine the effectiveness of calcium and vitamin D in protecting against decline of physical functioning in older women, the results did not support benefit.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
18755319
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"