Drug-metabolising enzyme polymorphisms and predisposition to anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury: a meta-analysis

F Sun, Y Chen, Y Xiang, S Zhan
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2008, 12 (9): 994-1002

BACKGROUND: Although some case-control studies have investigated the association between drug-metabolising enzyme (DME) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury (ATLI), their results are conflicting, mainly due to limited power.

OBJECTIVE: To review the literature systematically, by means of a meta-analytical review, to evaluate the putative association and provide a quantitative summary estimate on the association with ATLI.

DESIGN: We searched the databases of MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and CBMdisc from 1966 to May 2007 using 'DME', 'hepatotoxicity', 'genetic polymorphism', 'genetic susceptibility' in combination with 'antitubercular agents', performed a manual search of citations from relevant original studies and review articles, and corresponded with authors.

RESULTS: Nine eligible articles were included in this meta-analysis, including five on N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2), four on cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and two on glutathione S-transferase (GST) studies, separately. The overall ORs of ATLI risk associated with NAT2 homozygous variant genotype (mt/mt), CYP2E1 homozygous wild genotype (*1A/*1A), GSTM1 homozygous null genotype (null/null) and GSTT1 homozygous null genotype (null/null) were respectively 1.93 (95%CI 0.81-4.62), 2.22 (95%CI 1.06-4.66), 2.62 (95%CI 1.45-4.75) and 1.18 (95%CI 0.61-2.29). In addition, the OR for Asian ATLI associated with the NAT2 homozygous variant (mt/mt) and the combined genotype (w/w + w/mt) was 2.52 (95%CI 1.49-4.26).

CONCLUSIONS: NAT2 mt/mt, CYP2E1*1A/*1A and GSTM1 null/null were observed to increase the risk of ATLI in tuberculosis patients. Our results support the hypothesis that NAT2 mt, CYP2E1*1A and GSTM1 null have a modest effect on genetic susceptibility to ATLI, but no significant evidence for GSTT1 null/null.

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