The biomechanical properties of the feline femur

T W G Gibson, N M M Moens, R J Runciman, D L Holmberg, G M Monteith
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T 2008, 21 (4): 312-7
The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical properties of feline long bone by testing cadaver bone from mature cats in compression, three-point bending, notch sensitivity and screw pull-out strength. The determination of these properties is of clinical relevance with regard to the forces resulting in long bone fractures in cats as well as the behaviour and failure mode of surgical implants utilized for fracture stabilization and repair in the cat. Cadaveric cat femurs were tested in compression, three-point bending and in three-point bending after the addition of a 2.0 mm screw hole. Cortical screws, 2.7 mm in diameter, were inserted in cadaveric cat femur samples for screw pull-out testing. The mean maximum load to failure of mid diaphyseal feline femurs tested in compression was 4201+/-1218 N. Statistical analysis of the parameter of maximum load tested in compression revealed a statistical difference between sides (p=0.02), but not location (p=0.07), or location by side (p=0.12). The maximum strength of mid diaphyseal feline femurs tested in compression was 110.6+/-26.6 MPa. The modulus of elasticity of mid-diaphyseal cat femurs tested in compression was determined to be 5.004+/-0.970 GPa. The mean maximum load to failure of feline femurs tested in three-point bending was 443+/-98 N. The mean maximum load to failure of feline femurs tested in three-point bending after a 2.0 mm diameter hole was drilled in the mid-diaphyseal region of each sample through both cortices was 471+/-52 N. The mean maximum load required for screw pull-out of 2.7 mm cortical screws placed in feline femurs tested in tension was 886+/-221 N. This data should be suitable for investigating fracture biomechanics and the testing of orthopaedic constructs commonly used for fracture stabilization in the feline patient.

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