Quantitative evaluation of cortical bone thickness and root proximity at maxillary interradicular sites for orthodontic mini-implant placement

Ju-Eun Lim, Won Hee Lim, Yoon Sic Chun
Clinical Anatomy 2008, 21 (6): 486-91
Few studies have evaluated interradicular anatomy for cortical bone thickness and root proximity when placing a mini-implant for orthodontic anchorage. The purpose of this study was to provide a clinical guideline to indicate the best location, according to different insertion angles, for placement of a mini-implant with respect to the thickness of cortical bone and root proximity. CT images from 14 men and 14 women (mean age, 27 years; range, 23-35 years) were used to evaluate the buccal interradicular cortical bone thickness and root proximity from and mesial to the central incisor to the second molar. A measure of cortical bone thickness was performed at four different angles. Generally, thin cortical bone thickness was found in the central/central incisors and central/lateral incisors interradicular sites. Cortical bone thickness increased significantly as the insertion angle increased except for interradicular sites at the 2 mm level from the alveolar crest. The volume of cortical bone engagement increased significantly at the 4 and 6 mm levels from the alveolar crest with an insertion angle of 30 degrees and 45 degrees in most interradicular sites. The lateral incisor/canine and second premolar/first molar interradicular sites showed greater space between roots compared with other sites, although this was not statistically significant. Based on the findings of this study, we recommend that mini-implants be placed at the 4 and 6 mm levels from the alveolar crest with 30 degrees and 45 degrees angles for the majority of interradicular sites to ensure better cortical bone to mini-implant contact without root damage.

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