JOURNAL ARTICLE

Programmed death 1 expression during antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B: Impact of hepatitis B e-antigen seroconversion

Alexander Evans, Antonio Riva, Helen Cooksley, Sandra Phillips, Smrithi Puranik, Amit Nathwani, Sara Brett, Shilpa Chokshi, Nikolai V Naoumov
Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases 2008, 48 (3): 759-69
18697210

UNLABELLED: Hyperexpression of the programmed death 1 (PD-1) molecule is a hallmark of exhausted T-cells, having a negative impact on T-cell activation and function. We studied longitudinally 18 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients undergoing treatment with direct antivirals (telbivudine or lamivudine) to determine the relationship between treatment-induced viremia reduction and HBeAg seroconversion with respect to PD-1 levels and T-cell reactivity. PD-1 expression was assessed by (1) flow cytometry and (2) quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific CD8+ T-cells were quantitated by pentamer staining; T-cell reactivity to HBV antigens was determined by interferon gamma (IFNgamma) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assays; and central/effector memory phenotypes were defined by phenotypic markers. PD-1 expression correlated closely with viremia levels. On therapy, PD-1 decreased significantly on total CD8+ T-cells, HBV-specific CD8+ T-cells, and CD3+/CD8- T-cells both as the percentage of positive cells (P < 0.01) and as the mean fluorescent intensity (P < 0.05), and this was paralleled by a marked reduction of PD-1 messenger RNA levels (P = 0.001). HBeAg serocoversion (in 6/18 patients) resulted in a further PD-1 decrease with a 50% reduction in the frequency of PD-1+/CD8+ T-cells, which was not observed in patients remaining HBeAg-positive. The decrease in PD-1 expression was associated with increased frequencies of IFNgamma-producing T-cells and decreased frequencies of IL-10 producing T-cells. At baseline, PD-1 expression correlated directly with the frequency of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) central and effector memory phenotypes, whereas an inverse correlation was observed between PD-1 expression and HBcAg-specific effector phenotypes.

CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that in chronic HBV infection, both viremia levels and HBeAg drive PD-1 expression and resulting T-cell impairment. Treatment-induced suppression of HBV replication reduces PD-1 expression; however, additional immunotherapeutic interventions are needed for restoration of T-cell functions.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
18697210
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"