Pathologic classification and clinical behavior of the spectrum of goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix

Laura H Tang, Jinru Shia, Robert A Soslow, Deepti Dhall, W Douglas Wong, Eileen O'Reilly, Jing Qin, Philip Paty, Martin R Weiser, Jose Guillem, Larissa Temple, Leslie H Sobin, David S Klimstra
American Journal of Surgical Pathology 2008, 32 (10): 1429-43
Appendiceal tumors exhibiting both neuroendocrine and glandular differentiation are uncommon and have caused difficulty in pathologic classification, prediction of prognosis, and clinical management. Previously, such lesions have been variously designated as adenocarcinoid, goblet cell carcinoid (GCC), and mixed adenocarcinoma carcinoid. In this study, we undertook a retrospective investigation of 63 such cases and classified them as typical GCC (group A) and adenocarcinoma ex GCC on the basis of the histologic features of the tumor at the primary site. The adenocarcinoma ex GCC group was further divided into signet ring cell type (group B) and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma type (group C). The clinical characteristics and prognosis were compared within these groups and with conventional de novo appendiceal adenocarcinomas. Both groups A and B tumors shared a similar immunoprofile, which included generally focal immunoreactivity for neuroendocrine markers, and a normal intestinal type mucin glycoprotein profile (negative MUC1 expression and preserved MUC2 immunoreactivity). The proliferative index was relatively low in these tumors and slightly increased from groups A to B tumors (11% to 16%). Both beta-catenin and E-cadherin exhibited a normal membranous staining pattern in groups A and B tumors. The poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas ex GCC (group C) demonstrated abnormal p53 and beta-catenin immunoreactivity. The mean follow-up time was 49+/-5 (SE) months. The overall disease-specific survival for all subtypes was 77%, with 46% of patients without evidence of disease and 31% alive with disease. The mean survival was 43+/-7 months. All the patients with clinical stage of I or IIA disease had a favorable outcome after appropriate surgery with or without chemotherapy. Although most patients (63%) with GCC presented at an advanced clinical stage, their clinical outcome could be differentiated by subclassification of tumors. The stage IV-matched 5-year survival was 100%, 38%, and 0% for groups A, B, and C, respectively. In conclusion, GCC is a distinctive appendiceal neoplasm that exhibits unique pathologic features and clinical behavior. They display a spectrum of histologic features and possess the potential to transform to an adenocarcinoma phenotype of either signet ring cell or poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma types. Careful evaluation of the morphologic features of GCCs and appropriate pathologic classification are crucial for clinical management and prediction of outcome. Surgical management with right hemicolectomy is recommended after appendectomy for most cases, particularly those with an adenocarcinoma component (groups B and C).

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"