Action of (R)-sila-venlafaxine and reboxetine to antagonize cisplatin-induced acute and delayed emesis in the ferret

Julie B Warneck, Frankie H M Cheng, Matthew J Barnes, John S Mills, John G Montana, Robert J Naylor, Man-P Ngan, Man-K Wai, J├╝rgen O Daiss, Reinhold Tacke, John A Rudd
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2008 November 1, 232 (3): 369-75
The chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin is associated with severe gastrointestinal toxicity that can last for several days. A recent strategy to treat the nausea and emesis includes the combination of a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, a glucocorticoid, and an NK1 receptor antagonist. The present studies explore the use of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, (R)-sila-venlafaxine, (R,R)-reboxetine and (S,S)-reboxetine to prevent cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced acute (0-24 h) and delayed (24-72 h) emesis in ferrets. The positive control regimen of ondansetron and dexamethasone, both at 1 mg/kg/8 h, reduced acute and delayed emesis by 100 (P<0.001) and 61% (P<0.05). (R)-sila-venlafaxine at 5 and 15 mg/kg/4 h reduced acute emesis by 86 (P<0.01) and 66% (P<0.05), respectively and both enantiomers of reboxetine at 1 mg/kg/12 h also reduced the response by approximately 70-90% (P<0.05). Out of the reuptake inhibitors, only (R)-sila-venlafaxine at 15 mg/kg/4 h was active to reduce delayed emesis (a 57% reduction was observed (P<0.05)); its terminal plasma levels were positively correlated with an inhibition of emesis during the delayed phase (P<0.05). (R)-sila-venlafaxine was also examined against a higher dose of cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p. (3 h test) and it dose-dependently antagonized the response (maximum reduction was 94% at 10 mg/kg, p.o.; P<0.01) but it was ineffective against apomorphine (0.125 mg/kg, s.c.) and ipecacuanha (2 mg/kg, p.o.)-induced emesis (P>0.05). In conclusion, the studies provide the first evidence for an anti-emetic potential of noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors to reduce chemotherapy-induced acute and delayed emesis.

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