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Nailbiting, or onychophagia: a special habit.

Onychophagia, or nailbiting, is a common oral habit, observed in both children and adults. The etiologies suggested for nailbiting include anxiety, stress, loneliness, imitation of other family member, heredity, inactivity, transference from a thumb-sucking habit, and poorly manicured nails. Treatment should be directed at the causes; punishment, ridicule, nagging and threats, and application of bitter-tasting commercial preparations on the nail are a variety of reminders, but are not appropriate approaches to treatment. The key to success is the nailbiter's consent and cooperation.

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Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

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