Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Norwegian version of the Tampa scale for kinesiophobia

Anne Julsrud Haugen, Lars Grøvle, Anne Keller, Margreth Grotle
Spine 2008 August 1, 33 (17): E595-601

STUDY DESIGN: Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of a self-report questionnaire.

OBJECTIVE: To perform a translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Tampa scale for kinesiophobia (TSK) and to investigate its test-retest reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness among Norwegian-speaking patients with sciatica due to disc herniation.

SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The TSK is a self-report questionnaire developed to assess kinesiophobia, or fear of movement and/or (re)injury. To date, the psychometric properties of the TSK have not been demonstrated in patients with sciatica.

METHODS: The TSK was translated and back-translated according to recent guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. A principal components analysis and an evaluation of floor and ceiling effects were conducted. The TSK was tested for test-retest reliability, repeatability, internal consistency, and construct validity. Responsiveness was measured as standardized response means using a global change scale after 3 months as the external criteria.

RESULTS: In total, 466 patients with sciatica due to disc herniation were included. The TSK was easily comprehended. The principal components analysis yielded 3 factors. Component 1 showed a floor effect in which 152 (33.3%) of the patients achieved the lowest possible score. Repeatability according to Bland & Altman was 8, the coefficient of variance for paired measurements was 11%, and weighted kappa values for each item were moderate to substantial. Internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha was 0.81. Correlations with the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), FABQ/work, and FABQ/physical activity were 0.50, 0.38, and 0.51, respectively. Responsiveness was low to moderate.

CONCLUSION: The Norwegian version of the TSK was easily comprehended and demonstrated satisfactory validity and reliability for the assessment of fear of movement and/or (re)injury in patients with sciatica due to disc herniation. However, responsiveness was low to moderate.

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