Microalbuminuria in children with vesicoureteral reflux

J Basic, E Golubovic, P Miljkovic, G Bjelakovic, T Cvetkovic, V Milosevic
Renal Failure 2008, 30 (6): 639-43
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common congenital anomaly of the urinary tract that may be inherited. Reflux of infected urine may cause scarring in susceptible kidneys with the potential to compromise renal function. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible influence of different grades of VUR on glomerular damage using microalbuminuria as a parameter. Children with VUR detected by voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) were investigated. According to the grade of VUR, patients were separated into three groups. The first group included 12 children with VUR grade I-II. The second group consisted of 12 children with grade III of VUR. Patients with VUR grade IV-V (n = 11) were members of the third group. The control group consisted of 17 healthy children. Microalbuminuria was examined in samples of morning urine specimens using a microalbumin/creatinine reagent kit. Serum urea, creatinine levels and creatinine clearance (CCR) were measured as markers of renal function. The mean value of microalbumin excretion in the third group showed a statistically significant increase (p < 0.001) compared to all other groups. CCR in the third group was statistically significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in comparison to the group of healthy children. There were no statistically significant changes of microalbumin excretion and CCR in the first and second group compared to control values. We discussed the presence of microalbuminuria and decrease of CCR in children with high grade of VUR as a possible consequence of retrograde urine flow (intrarenal reflux), glomerulosclerosis, and consecutive hyperfiltration.

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