Transforming growth factor-beta blockade down-regulates the renin-angiotensin system and modifies cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction

Leigh J Ellmers, Nicola J A Scott, Satyanarayana Medicherla, Anna P Pilbrow, Paul G Bridgman, Timothy G Yandle, A Mark Richards, Andrew A Protter, Vicky A Cameron
Endocrinology 2008, 149 (11): 5828-34
After myocardial infarction (MI), the heart may undergo progressive ventricular remodeling, resulting in a deterioration of cardiac function. TGF-beta is a key cytokine that both initiates and terminates tissue repair, and its sustained production underlies the development of tissue fibrosis, particularly after MI. We investigated the effects of a novel orally active specific inhibitor of the TGF-beta receptor 1 (SD-208) in an experimental model of MI. Mice underwent ligation of the left coronary artery to induce MI and were subsequently treated for 30 d after infarction with either SD-208 or a vehicle control. Blockade of TGF-beta signaling reduced mean arterial pressure in all groups. SD-208 treatment after MI resulted in a trend for reduced ventricular and renal gene expression of TGF-beta-activated kinase-1 (a downstream modulator of TGF-beta signaling) and a significant decrease in collagen 1, in association with a marked decrease in cardiac mass. Post-MI SD-208 treatment significantly reduced circulating levels of plasma renin activity as well as down-regulating the components of the cardiac and renal renin-angiotensin system (angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme, and angiotensin II type I receptor). Our findings indicate that blockade of the TGF-beta signaling pathway results in significant amelioration of deleterious cardiac remodeling after infarction.

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