Down-regulation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis synergistically enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligand-induced growth inhibition in colon cancer

Liang Qiao, Yun Dai, Qing Gu, Kwok Wah Chan, Bing Zou, Juan Ma, Jide Wang, Hui Y Lan, Benjamin C Y Wong
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 2008, 7 (7): 2203-11
We found previously that X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), a potent endogenous inhibitor of apoptosis, is overexpressed in colon cancer. Ligand-induced activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) has been shown to exert proapoptotic and antiproliferative effects in many cancer cell types. However, neither XIAP down-regulation alone nor monotherapy using PPARgamma ligands is potent enough to control colon cancer. We explored whether XIAP inhibition and PPARgamma activation offer a synergistic anticancer effect in colon cancer. HCT116-XIAP(+/+) and HCT116-XIAP(-/-) cells were treated with troglitazone or 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15-PGJ(2)). Cell growth and apoptosis were measured. Nude mice were s.c. inoculated with HCT116 cells with or without oral troglitazone. Tumor growth, angiogenesis, and apoptosis were measured. Troglitazone- and 15-PGJ(2)-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis were more prominent in HCT116-XIAP(-/-) cells. Troglitazone- and 15-PGJ(2)-induced apoptosis correlated with enhanced cleavage of caspases and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, which were more profound in HCT116-XIAP(-/-) cells. Pretreatment of cells with XIAP inhibitor 1396-12 also sensitized HCT116-XIAP(+/+) cells to PPARgamma ligand-induced apoptosis. Troglitazone significantly retarded the growth of xenograft tumors, more significantly so in HCT116-XIAP(-/-) cell-derived tumors. Reduction of tumor size was associated with reduced expression of Ki-67, vascular endothelial growth factor, and CD31 as well as increased apoptosis. Loss of XIAP significantly sensitized colorectal cancer cells to PPARgamma ligand-induced apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation. Thus, simultaneous inhibition of XIAP and activation of PPARgamma may have a synergistic antitumor effect against colon cancer.

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