Tracking genomic instability within irradiated and bystander populations

Kim L Chapman, James W Kelly, Ryonfa Lee, Edwin H Goodwin, Munira A Kadhim
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2008, 60 (8): 959-68
Over the past two decades, our understanding of radiation biology has undergone a fundamental shift in paradigms away from deterministic 'hit-effect' relationships and towards complex ongoing 'cellular responses'. These responses include now familiar, but still poorly understood, phenomena associated with radiation exposure such as genomic instability and bystander effects. Although these responses share some common features (e.g. they occur at high frequency following very low doses, are heterogeneous in their induction and are observed at time points far removed from the initial radiation exposure), the precise relationship between genomic instability and bystander effects remains to be elucidated. This review will provide a synthesis of the known, and proposed, interrelationships among irradiated and bystander cellular responses to radiation. It also discusses our current experimental approach for gaining a clearer understanding of the relationship between damage induction and long-term effects in both irradiated and bystander cells.

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