Role of NF-kappaB and PI 3-kinase/Akt in TNF-alpha-induced cytotoxicity in microvascular endothelial cells

Zhu Zhou, Patricia Gengaro, Wei Wang, Xue-qing Wang, Chunling Li, Sarah Faubel, Christopher Rivard, Robert W Schrier
American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology 2008, 295 (4): F932-41
The interaction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha with the endothelium is a pivotal factor during endotoxemia. Inflammatory conditions are characterized by the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and the expression of inflammatory mediators. Previous reports indicate that inhibition of NF-kappaB activation during sepsis may be beneficial to the microvasculature. In addition, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway (PI3-kinase/Akt) has been shown to be cytoprotective. In this study, we examined the effect of inhibition of NF-kappaB and PI3-kinase/Akt on cell viability, cytokine production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and nitric oxide (NO) generation by TNF-alpha-treated cultured microvascular endothelial cells. TNF-alpha induced significant cytotoxicity and was associated with increased inflammatory cytokines and NO and increased expression of iNOS. The NF-kappaB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), prevented these increases and significantly attenuated the TNF-alpha-induced cytotoxicity. TNF-alpha also caused PI3-kinase/Akt activation, which was further increased by PDTC and prevented by the PI3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002. Inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt also significantly potentiated TNF-alpha-mediated cytotoxicity. LY294002 treatment resulted in the appearance of increased apoptosis, compatible with the known anti-apoptotic properties of PI3-kinase/Akt. The present results therefore demonstrate a cytotoxic effect of TNF-alpha in microvascular endothelial cells which can be attenuated by NF-kappaB inhibition. In addition, PI3-kinase/Akt activation during TNF-alpha exposure may represent a compensatory anti-necrotic and anti-apoptotic pathway. The cytoprotective effects of NF-kappaB inhibition and PI3-kinase/Akt activation may have potential implications in the treatment of endotoxemia and septic shock.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"