Validation of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) in Cantonese-speaking Chinese patients

Michelle N Cheung, Michelle Cheung Ning, Tony C M Wong, Tony Wong Chi Ming, Jacqueline C M Yap, Jacqueline Yap Chooi Mae, Phoon P Chen, Chen Phoon Ping
Journal of Pain 2008, 9 (9): 823-32

UNLABELLED: Acceptance of chronic pain has become an important concept in understanding and predicting that chronic pain sufferers can remain engaged with meaningful aspects of life. Assessment of acceptance has been facilitated by the development of Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ). In this study, we aimed to test the reliability and validity of translated Chinese version of CPAQ to use this important tool in the future management of Hong Kong Chinese patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. Content validity was established by consensus formed among a panel of 5 experts in clinical psychology and pain specialty during the process of forward and backward translations. Test-retest reliability was examined by completing the Chinese CPAQ twice, 2 weeks apart, by 54 patients. A total of 224 Chinese patients with chronic nonmalignant pain attending our cluster multidisciplinary pain clinic were asked to complete a battery of psychometric instruments in Chinese, including an intake form for demographic data, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS), Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), and Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ). Analysis results showed that Chinese CPAQ had good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.79) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach alpha = 0.79). The Chinese CPAQ score was significantly correlated to anxiety, depression, pain catastrophizing, pain self-efficacy, and physical and psychosocial disability. Scree plot and Principal Components Factor analysis confirmed the same 2-factor construct as the original English CPAQ. Construct validity of the Chinese CPAQ can therefore be supported. In conclusion, the Chinese CPAQ is a reliable clinical assessment tool with valid construct for acceptance measurement in our heterogeneous Chinese patients sample with chronic nonmalignant pain.

PERSPECTIVE: This article confirms the reliability and validity of a Chinese version of the CPAQ. The Chinese CPAQ can then be used by pain clinicians caring for Chinese chronic pain patients worldwide for acceptance-based psychometric assessment as well as therapies.

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