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Risk factors associated with mortality of infections caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: a systematic review

J I Garcia Paez, S F Costa
Journal of Hospital Infection 2008, 70 (2): 101-8
The objective of this review was to assess the quality of available literature regarding risk factors associated with mortality of infections caused by S. maltophilia. PubMed and OVID were searched from March 1985 to March 2008, and eligible studies were considered to be those that related S. maltophilia infection with risk factors associated with mortality; described the characteristics of patients in detail; and provided data regarding the outcome and mortality. Thirty-eight studies were found referring to S. maltophilia (four with multivariate analysis and 10 with univariate analysis). This review has several limitations, mainly due to the heterogeneity of patients, lack of appropriate statistical analysis and lack of definition of nosocomial and community infection studies. Data reviewed suggest that infections caused by S. maltophilia have high mortality and that the risk factors associated with mortality are related to the initial clinical condition and patient type. Underlying haematological disease in cancer patients and admission to the intensive care unit are independent risk factors associated with mortality. Shock, thrombocytopenia and Acute Physiological Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) score >15 are independent risk factors associated with outcome in patients with bloodstream infection and pneumonia. Organ dysfunction is the only independent risk factor associated with death from infection caused by sulfamethoxazole-resistant S. maltophilia. The impact of adequate antimicrobial therapy and removal of central venous catheter on mortality require further clinical studies.

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