Endovascular dialysis interventions in the era of DOQI

Joshua I Greenberg, Ahmed Suliman, Niren Angle
Annals of Vascular Surgery 2008, 22 (5): 657-62
The National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcomes and Quality Initiative (DOQI) recommends autogenous fistulae as the preferred access for new dialysis procedures. Unfortunately, despite superior patency rates compared to prosthetic grafts, even autogenous access durability is often undermined by venous stenosis due to intimal hyperplasia at the outflow vein or by central venous stenosis due to long-standing central venous catheters. Salvage interventions, in the form of endovascular treatments such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and/or stenting, are increasingly utilized for access salvage and maintenance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of endovascular dialysis interventions in the era of DOQI. A retrospective review of a database of endovascular interventions for dialysis access during 36 months at an academic medical center was performed. Both central venous and access outflow lesions were included in the analysis. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank analysis were used to assess and compare time-dependent variables. Forty-five patients with dialysis access underwent 72 endovascular interventions for access maintenance. There were 27 central venous and 32 outflow endovascular interventions with 98% follow-up. Primary and assisted primary patency rates for outflow balloon PTA were 50% and 72% at 12 months, respectively. There were 1.1 reinterventions required per index outflow PTA procedure. Postintervention primary patency rates for central venous PTA were 30% and 9% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Postintervention assisted patency for central venous PTA was 100% at 12 months, requiring 1.8 reinterventions per index PTA. Central venous and venous outflow interventions extended overall access patency by 38.5 and 33 months, respectively (p < 0.0001). Endovascular interventions are the mainstay of treatment for the malfunctioning dialysis access. Despite the need for multiple reinterventions and close surveillance, catheter-based interventions positively contribute to dialysis access durability in accordance with DOQI guidelines.

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