REVIEW
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Pediatric movement disorders: an update.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pediatric movement disorders the represent a broad range of disorders, the majority of which are intermittent and hyperkinetic. The goal of this review is to discuss recent findings in several under-recognized conditions (motor stereotypy disorder, restless legs syndrome, and infantile masturbation) as well as the area of autoimmune movement disorders [Sydenham's chorea and PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection)].

RECENT FINDINGS: Advances to be discussed include clarification of symptoms, diagnostic clues, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment.

SUMMARY: Significant progress has been made in the study of several paroxysmal movement disorders. Motor stereotypies can occur in typical children and persist over time. Infantile masturbation is often misdiagnosed for seizures or dystonia. Restless leg syndrome is a relatively common problem in children and established criteria are available. Advances have been made in the hallmark autoimmune disorder Sydenham's chorea, but PANDAS remains controversial.

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