Changes in the expression of CD106, osteogenic genes, and transcription factors involved in the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

Feng Liu, Yasuto Akiyama, Sachiko Tai, Kouji Maruyama, Yoshihiro Kawaguchi, Kouji Muramatsu, Ken Yamaguchi
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 2008, 26 (4): 312-20
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well known to possess multipotential differentiation and are becoming a good tool for clinical research. However, specific markers for their purification and the mechanism of their osteogenic differentiation remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we compared the expression of CD106, and osteogenic differentiation-related proteins and genes in human bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs, before and after differentiation by FACS, histochemical staining, immunohistochemical staining, RT-PCR, and real-time PCR. It was found that MSCs were positive for CD13, CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD166, but negative for CD14, CD31, CD34, CD62E, CD45, and GlyA. Notably, CD106 was detected before osteogenic induction, but its expression was downregulated 10 fold after 2 weeks of osteogenic differentiation as determined by flow cytometry. The results of RT-PCR and real-time PCR revealed that the expression of CD106 mRNA in MSCs significantly decreased by 7.1-, 4.2-, and 5.1-fold, respectively after osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation. In contrast, other MSC-positive markers described above did not change significantly even after differentiation. Compared to levels in control cells, after 2 weeks of osteogenic differentiation, mRNA levels of alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and transcript factors RUNX2 and Osterix showed more than 2-fold, 5-fold, 1.5-fold, 2-fold, and 5-fold increase, respectively. Thus, we speculate that CD106 might be a useful surface marker for BMMSCs. Moreover, alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, osteonectin, osteopontin, and biglycin were expressed in the early stages of osteogenic differentiation before bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin. The present study should help to provide a novel marker for isolating purified MSCs and characterizing osteogenic differentiation.

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