Upregulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-10 by prostaglandin A1 in mouse peritoneal macrophages

Hyo Young Kim, Jae Ryong Kim, Hee Sun Kim
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 2008, 18 (6): 1170-8
The cyclopentenone prostaglandins (cyPGs) prostaglandin A1 (PGA1) and 15-deoxy-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) have been reported to exhibit antiinflammatory activity in activated monocytes/macrophages. However, the effects of these two cyPGs on the expression of cytokine genes may differ. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of action of PGA1 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-10 mRNA in mouse peritoneal macrophages. 15d-PGJ2 inhibited expression of LPSinduced IL-10, whereas PGA1 increased LPS-induced IL-10 expression. This synergistic effect of PGA1 on LPS-induced IL-10 expression reached a maximum as early as 2 h after simultaneous PGA1 and LPS treatment (PGA1/LPS), and did not require new protein synthesis. The synergistic effect of PGA1 was inhibited by GW9662, a specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) antagonist, and Bay-11-7082, a NF-kappaB inhibitor. The extracellular signalregulated kinases (ERK) inhibitor PD98059 increased the expression of PGA1/LPS-induced IL-10 mRNA, rather than inhibiting the IL-10 expression. Moreover, PGA1 inhibited LPS-induced ERK phosphorylation. The synergistic effect of PGA1 on LPS-induced IL-10 mRNA and protein production was inhibited by p38 inhibitor PD169316, and PGA1 increased LPS-induced p38 phosphorylation. In the case of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), the SAPK/JNK inhibitor SP600125 did not inhibit IL-10 mRNA synthesis but inhibited the production of IL-10 protein remarkably. These results suggest that the synergistic effect of PGA1 on LPS-induced IL-10 expression is NF-kappaB-dependent and mediated by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, p38, and SAPK/ JNK signaling pathways, and also associated with the PPARgamma pathway. Our data may provide more insight into the diverse mechanisms of PGA1 effects on the expression of cytokine genes.

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