Hemodynamic responses to endotracheal extubation after coronary artery bypass grafting

R Paulissian, M R Salem, N J Joseph, B Braverman, H C Cohen, G J Crystal, H J Heyman
Anesthesia and Analgesia 1991, 73 (1): 10-5
After coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery, patients may remain at risk for myocardial ischemia and infarction and ventricular dysrhythmias. The hemodynamic responses to endotracheal extubation and the efficacy of intravenous lidocaine pretreatment were studied after CABG surgery and overnight mechanical ventilation. Twenty-five patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 13) patients who had tracheal extubation after pretreatment with a placebo; group 2 patients who received lidocaine (1 mg/kg IV) before tracheal extubation. Hemodynamic data, electrocardiographic tracings, and arterial blood gases were obtained before tracheal extubation, during suctioning, and 1, 5, and 20 min after tracheal extubation. Group 1 patients displayed significant increases in heart rate, arterial blood pressure, rate-pressure product, right atrial pressure, and cardiac index during suctioning and within 1 min of tracheal extubation, returning to preextubation level by 5 min. There were no significant changes in pulmonary and systemic resistance indices. Hemodynamic changes in group 2 patients were similar to those in group 1. Both in the absence and presence of lidocaine, tracheal extubation caused hemodynamic responses that were small in magnitude and brief in duration. These responses were not associated with electrocardiographic or enzymatic evidence of myocardial ischemia or infarction, or with ventricular dysrhythmias. Compared with the well-documented hemodynamic responses to tracheal intubation, we found that extubation of the trachea after CABG surgery was associated with less pronounced responses. This may be related to avoidance of laryngoscopy and possibly accommodation to the endo-tracheal tube. These modest hemodynamic responses of extubation of the trachea after CABG surgery were not modified by intravenous lidocaine.

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