[EuroQol-5D FOR quality of life assessment in cardiac rehabilitation]

G Balestroni, G Omarini, P Omarini, A M Zotti
Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia 2007, 29 (3): B56-62
EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) is a well-known generic instrument measuring quality of life in different diseases; it includes 5 dimensions (mobility, self-care, daily activities, pain-discomfort, anxiety and depression) and a Visual Analogue Scale that evaluates patients' perceived health status. The aim of this study was to verify the utility of the EQ-5D in the Italian Cardiac Rehabilitation setting. The study population consisted of 248 consecutive cardiac rehabilitation inpatients (176 males and 72 females, aged 65.3 +/- 10.75 years), 200 of whom had recently undergone cardiac surgery (aortocoronary by-pass and/or valve replacement). Patients filled in the EQ-5D and A-D schedule (on anxiety and depression) on their second day in hospital. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis confirmed the robust nature of the EQ-5D and its mono-factorial structure (EFA: Total Variance 50.39% - CFA: chi2 = 3.596; p approximately equal .60; RMSEA = 00; CFI = 1.00; RMR = .007). The instrument showed a good internal consistency (a .73) despite the limited number of items. T test and ANOVA showed the independence of the EQ-5D dimensions and VAS evaluation with respect to patients' education level, but an influence of age and sex. In general, females reported a lower quality of life than males, and older patients a lower quality of life than younger. Furthermore, cardiac-surgery patients reported more problems in self-care and pain-discomfort than ischemic/heart failure patients, and patients in NYHA Classes III and IV reported more difficulties in mobility than patients in lower NYHA classes. In 15% of patients, of heterogeneous socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, no problems in any of the 5 EQ-5D dimensions were reported: this group was characterised by scores under the clinical cut-off on anxiety and depression and showed a better quality of life on the VAS. Results confirm the robustness of the EuroQol-SD psychometric properties and the instrument's utility for the routine assessment of quality of life in the Italian Cardiac Rehabilitation setting.

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