Effect of sodium overload on renal function of offspring from diabetic mothers

Luigi Rocco, Frida Zaladek Gil, Thaís Maria da Fonseca Pletiskaitz, Maria de Fátima Cavanal, Guiomar Nascimento Gomes
Pediatric Nephrology 2008, 23 (11): 2053-60
The aim if this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium overload on blood pressure and renal function in the offspring of diabetic rat mothers. Diabetes was induced with a single dose of streptozotocin before mating. Experimental groups were control (C), offspring from diabetic mother (D), control with sodium chloride (NaCl) overload (CS), and offspring from diabetic mother submitted to NaCl overload (DS). After weaning, all groups received food ad libitum; groups C and D had water ad libitum, and CS and DS received NaCl 0.15 M as drinking water. Renal morphology and function were evaluated in 3-month-old rats. Glomerular area, macrophage infiltration, interlobular artery wall thickness, and renal vascular resistance were significantly increased in CS, D, and DS compared with C. Renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were decreased in CS and D compared with C. In DS, GFR and fractional filtration were increased, suggesting a state of hyperfiltration. Hypertension was observed in groups D, CS, and DS from 2 months on and was more severe in DS. Our data suggest that diabetes during intrauterine development and salt overload beginning at an early age can cause hypertension and renal injury. When these conditions were associated, morphological and functional changes were much more intense, suggesting acceleration in the process of kidney injury.

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