Comparative Study
Journal Article
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Radical vaginal trachelectomy vs. radical hysterectomy for small early stage cervical cancer: a matched case-control study.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and outcome from radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) compared to a matched group of patients undergoing radical hysterectomy for small early stage cervical cancer.

METHODS: All patient data were entered prospectively. Patients wishing preservation of fertility with cervical cancer, tumor <2 cm, and not meeting the definition of microinvasive cancer were offered RVT. The outcomes were compared to a matched group of patients who underwent radical hysterectomy for stage IA/IB cervical cancer. Groups were matched 1:1 for age (+/-5 years), tumor size (+/-1 mm), histology, grade, depth of invasion (+/-1 mm), presence of capillary lymphatic space invasion, pelvic lymph node metastasis, and adjuvant radiotherapy.

RESULTS: A total of 137 patients underwent RVT between 1994 and 2007. Of them, 90 patients were successfully matched. Median tumor size was microscopic. Moreover, 43% and 49% were squamous and had adeno/adenosquamous histology. Median depth of invasion was 3.1 mm. Capillary lymphatic space invasion was present in 68% of cases. Of the tumors, 60% were grade 1, 29% were grade 2, and 11% were grade 3. After a median follow-up of 51 and 58 months, 5 and 1 recurrences were diagnosed in the RVT and radical hysterectomy groups, respectively. Five-year recurrence-free survival rates were present in 95% and 100% of the groups, respectively (p=0.17). In addition, 3 and 1 deaths occurred in the RVT and radical hysterectomy groups, resulting in 5-year survival rates of 99% and 100%, respectively (p=0.55).

CONCLUSIONS: RVT seems to be the procedure of choice for women with small early stage cervical cancers wishing to preserve fertility.

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