Hypolipidaemic effects of potato protein and fish protein in pigs

J Spielmann, H Kluge, G I Stangl, K Eder
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 2009, 93 (4): 400-9
This study was performed to assess the effects of potato protein and fish protein on concentrations of lipids in plasma and lipoproteins and the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in pigs used as an animal model. Therefore, 27 young male pigs with an average body weight of 22 kg were fed diets supplemented with protein extracted from potatoes (containing 849 g protein/kg dry matter), Alaska Pollack fillet as a source of fish protein (containing 926 g crude protein/kg dry matter) or casein which was used as control, for 3 weeks. Diets were formulated to supply identical amounts of each protein to the pigs by the three protein sources, namely 116 g/day in first week and 150 g/day in the second and third week. Pigs fed potato protein had lower concentrations of cholesterol in plasma and LDL than pigs fed casein (p < 0.05); no effect was observed on concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Pigs fed fish protein had lower cholesterol concentrations in plasma, LDL and HDL, and lower triglyceride concentrations in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins than pigs fed casein (p < 0.05). mRNA concentrations of genes involved in bile acid synthesis and cholesterol uptake were higher in pigs fed fish protein than in pigs fed casein (p < 0.05); no effect on these genes was observed in pigs fed potato protein. Expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation was not altered by fish protein. In conclusion, this study shows that fish protein and potato protein lower plasma cholesterol concentrations in pigs. The hypocholesterolaemic effect of fish protein might be in part caused by a stimulation of bile acid synthesis; the reason for the hypocholesterolaemic effect of potato protein requires further elucidation.

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